Public Non-Traded REITs—Perform a Careful Review Before Investing
During extended period of low interest rates, investors often seek products offering more attractive yields. One such product is the publicly registered non-exchange traded real estate investment trust (REIT) or "non-traded REIT" for short. While non-traded REITs and exchange-traded REITs share many features in common, they differ in several key respects. Most significantly, as the name implies, shares of non-traded REITs do not trade on a national securities exchange. For this reason, non-traded REITs are generally illiquid, often for periods of eight years or more. Early redemption of shares is often very limited, and fees associated with the sale of these products can be high and erode total return. Furthermore, the periodic distributions that help make these products so appealing can, in some cases, be heavily subsidized by borrowed funds and include a return of investor principal. This is in contrast to the dividends investors receive from large corporations that trade on national exchanges, which are typically derived solely from earnings.
FINRA is issuing this alert to inform investors of the features and risks of publicly registered non-exchange traded REITs and the attached tip sheet to help you avoid pitfalls and misconceptions these investments. If you are considering a publicly registered non-exchange traded REIT, be prepared to ask questions about the benefits, risks, features and fees.
What Is a REIT?
A real estate investment trust, or REIT, is a corporation, trust or association that owns (and might also manage) income-producing real estate. REITs pool the capital of numerous investors to purchase a portfolio of properties—from office buildings and shopping centers to hotels and apartments, even timber-producing land—which the typical investor might not otherwise be able to purchase individually.
REITs can offer tax advantages. For instance, qualified REITs that meet Internal Revenue Service requirements can deduct distributions paid to shareholders from corporate taxable income, avoiding double taxation. The REIT must also distribute at least 90 percent of its taxable income to shareholders annually. These distributions are taxable to the extent of any ordinary income and capital gains included in the distribution.
There are two types of public REITS: those that trade on a national securities exchange and those that do not. REITs in this latter category are generally referred to as publicly registered non-exchange traded, or simply non-traded REITS, which are the focus of this alert.
Features of Non-Traded REITs
Like exchange-traded REITs, non-traded REITs invest in real estate. They are also subject to the same IRS requirements that an exchange-traded REIT must meet, including distributing at least 90 percent of taxable income to shareholders. Like exchange-traded REITS, non-traded REITs are registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission and are required to make regular SEC disclosures, including filing a prospectus and quarterly (10-Q) and annual reports (10-K), all of which are publicly available through the SEC’s EDGAR database. While these two types of REITs share these similarities, there are also numerous differences between them, as illustrated in the chart below.
|Non-Traded REITs||Exchange-Traded REITs|
|Listing Status||Shares do not list on a national securities exchange.||Shares trade on a national securities exchange.|
|Secondary Market||Very limited. While a portion of total shares outstanding may be redeemable each year, subject to limitations, redemption offers may be priced below the purchase price or current price.||Exchange traded. Generally easy for investors to buy and sell.|
|Front-End Fees||Front-end fees that can be as much as 15% of the per share price. Those fees include selling compensation and expenses, which cannot exceed 10%, and additional offering and organizational costs.||Front-end underwriting fees in the form of a discount may be 7% or more of the offering proceeds. Investors who buy shares in the open market pay a brokerage commission.|
|Anticipated Source of Return||Investors typically seek income from distributions over a period of years. Upon liquidation, return of capital may be more or less than the original investment depending on the value of assets.||Investors typically seek capital appreciation based on prices at which REITs’ shares trade on an exchange. REITs also may pay distributions to shareholders.|
*Broker-dealers involved in the sale of these products to investors are required to provide valuations within 18 months after cessation of a non-traded REIT’s offering of shares, and they must comply with FINRA Rule 2340 and FINRA’s Notice to Members (09-09) regarding timeliness of data supporting account statement valuations. Non- traded REITS must also provide annual valuation guidance for ERISA custodians to comply with IRS and Department of Labor rules.
There is another type of REIT—a private REIT, or private-placement REIT—that also does not trade on an exchange. Private REITS carry significant risk to investors. Not only are they unlisted, making them hard to value and trade, but they also generally are exempt from Securities Act registration. As such, private REITs are not subject to the same disclosure requirements as public non-traded REITs. The lack of disclosure documents makes it extremely difficult for investors to make an informed decision about the investment. Private REITS generally can be sold only to accredited investors, for instance those with a net worth in excess of $1 million. As with any private investment, it is a good idea to have the investment reviewed by an investment professional who understands the product and can offer impartial advice.
Complexities and Risks
When it comes to investing in non-traded REITs, selling points such as the opportunity for capital appreciation, diversification and the allure of a robust distribution can be enticing. But investors should balance these selling points against the numerous complexities and risks these investments carry.
According to state regulatory guidelines, the total for both types of fees cannot exceed 15 percent. FINRA guidelines also limit the total for both types of fees to 15 percent in offerings that are sold by an affiliated broker-dealer. All investments carry fees, and they add up, reducing the amount of capital available for investment. For example, a 15 percent front-end fee on a $10,000 investment means that $8,500 is going to work for you at the time of investment. By comparison, the underwriting compensation associated with exchange-traded REITS is normally seven percent of the offering proceeds.
Before You Invest
Be wary of pitches or sales literature offering simplistic reasons to buy a REIT investment. Sales pitches might play up high yields and stability while glossing over the product’s lack of liquidity, fees and other risks. Ask whoever is recommending that you purchase a REIT how much they (and their company) are receiving in selling commissions or other fees. Also ask them to explain why they think the REIT is the right investment for you and how will it help you achieve your specific investment objectives and goals.1
Always ask to review the initial prospectus and any prospectus supplements, as these documents will contain a more extensive and balanced discussion of the risks involved than any sales material you receive or pitches you hear. You can obtain a prospectus by going to the SEC’s EDGAR database of company filings and typing in the name of the REIT, then search for entries titled “Prospectus.” Remember that the fact that a company has registered its securities or has filed reports with the SEC does not mean that it will be a good investment—or that it will be right for you.
Ask about fees associated with the product. Also ask how the distribution is being funded and whether a portion of that distribution is comprised of a return of investor capital. Make sure you understand that you will be locking up your investment, with only limited avenues for redemption. If the REIT offers a share redemption program, make sure you understand how the repurchase price for your shares will be determined and, most importantly, the limitations of the plan. Review with your financial professional the risks associated with real estate investment and evaluate other products that could meet your investment objectives (investment income, for instance). Understand the various liquidity events specific to the REIT you are considering.
Remember to only invest if you are confident the product can help you meet your investment objectives and you are comfortable with the associated risks.
If you are suspicious about an investment or investment offer, or if you think the claims might be exaggerated or misleading, please contact us.
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1 FINRA initiated a disciplinary complaint against a brokerage firm, charging that the firm solicited investors to purchase shares in a non-traded REIT without conducting a reasonable investigation to determine whether it was suitable for investors. The complaint also alleged that the firm provided misleading information on its website regarding the REIT’s distributions. The case was settled, and the firm agreed to pay a fine and restitution to investors.